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- Common names:
- common hackberry, hackberry
- Growth form:
- Medium-sized to large tree,
- 12 - 24 m tall, trunk diameter 25 - 40 cm.
- rounded with many spreading, slender branches.
- gray or light brown, thin, smooth, becoming warty, rough, and scaly with age.
- slender, gray to reddish brown, slightly zigzag, sometimes hairy, shiny. Leaf scars crescent-shaped with one to three bundle scars.
- light brown or gray, 3 - 6 mm long, slender, egg-shaped, pointed, finely hairy.
- alternate, with short, hairy leafstalks. The blade is shiny green above, paler with hairy veins beneath, 5 - 14 cm long, half as wide, and broadly lance-shaped with an asymmetrical, rounded or tapering base and long-pointed tip. It is also coarsely toothed (except near the base), thin, and smooth or somewhat rough on one or both surfaces. The veins form a lacelike pattern. In autumn the leaves turn light yellow.
- either male or female, borne on the same tree (monoecious) in drooping clusters or solitary, greenish yellow, inconspicuous, without petals.
- fleshy, single-seeded (drupe), borne on drooping stalks, dark purple, 7 - 13 cm long, nearly round, smooth, becoming puckered and prune-like. Pit wrinkled.
- Similar species:
- Of the two Celtis species found in the Chicago Region, this one is much more common. Celtis tenuifolia differs by its smaller size; its smaller, lesser toothed, and short-tipped leaves; its 3 - 6 mm long fruit stalks; and its smaller, pinkish brown, smooth fruit. Also, the presence of hackberry nipple-gall and witches' broom is common on C. occidentalis. Note: Leaves may resemble those of Ulmus, but Celtis species have three main veins arising from the base of each blade.
- Celtis tenuifolia
- mid-April to early May, after the leaves are partly grown
- Habitat and ecology:
- Frequent in moist woods, often in and along floodplains of streams.
- Regional occurrence:
- The wood of Celtis occidentalis is used for furniture, fence posts, boxes, and crates. It is easily transplanted and valued as a lawn and park tree. A type of "witches' broom," caused by mites and fungi, is often seen on twigs throughout the crown, and nipple-galls are common on the leaves.
- Celtis is the Greek word for the hackberry tree (hackberry is actually a corruption of the Scottish name Hagberry, a species of cherry tree). Occidentalis means "of or from the West."
name code: CEOC
; page author: The Morton Arboretum
; page date: 2006-12-03
- Further information (external links):
- Flora of North America online treatment
USDA PLANTS Profile, Includes USA map, state map links
[ We can not vouch for content of other websites ]
- Barnes, B. V., and W. H. Wagner, Jr. 2004. Michigan trees: A guide to the trees of the Great Lakes region. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
- Dirr, M. A. 1998. Manual of woody landscape plants: Their identification, ornamental characteristics, culture, propagation and uses. 5th ed. Champaign, IL: Stipes Publishing.
- Mohlenbrock, R. H. 1996. Forest trees of Illinois. 8th ed. Illinois: Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Division of Forest Resources.